Es curioso ver la lista de los 10 cócteles que más se venden en el mundo, sacada de 100 de los mejores bares del mundo donde sus camareros cuentan que es lo que más piden sus clientes, seguro que la mayoría te suenan o tal vez creas que el orden no es el correcto, ya que en tu país no te suene a una bebida popular, pero el mundo es muy grande y los gustos diferentes …
En la lista aparece en primer lugar el Old Fashioned, si lo tuyo es el whisky es el mejor compañero de viaje, y si te preguntas el motivo tal vez está descripción te anime a probarlo:
“De hecho estoy convencido de que, bien preparado (lo cual es sorprendentemente fácil), un Old Fashioned es verdaderamente uno de los mejores cócteles clásicos; tiene fuerza, pero es muy agradable a los sentidos; su apariencia es elegante y delicada, pero es decididamente masculino; su sabor es excelente, desde un sutilmente agresivo principio hasta el suavemente placentero final y siempre conserva un aroma excepcional. Dirán: “Demasiado para un poco de whisky con hielo”. Después de todo, “Ni siquiera es servido en una copa de cocktail”.
El segundo lugar lo ocupa el Mojito, ¿quién no se ha tomado este caribeño cóctel en alguna ocasión?. A la vista se presenta más armónico, sin hojas trituradas en su interior ni en la superficie. Su aroma es directamente provisto por la hierbabuena, que actúa como aromatizante y decoración, predisponiendo con su frescura al consumo.
La entrada es suave y balanceada. En el paladar se aprecia refrescante y sabroso. El alcohol se mantiene presente sin ser demasiado agresivo. Perfectamente balanceado con la acidez de la lima y el dulce del azúcar
Decir que es refrescante pero seco, suave pero intenso, dulce pero con un punto amargo. Su mezcla de aromas y esencias nos transportará al máximo placer.
Sin duda alguna, una de las mejores y más populares creaciones cocteleras de la historia.
El Negroni ocupa el tercer lugar en este top, un combinado que se remonta a la Florencia de los años 20, ciudad que en aquel momento se convirtió en el lugar favorito de reunión de la alta sociedad europea. Fue precisamente un aristócrata, el conde Camillo Negroni, quien cansado de beber el clásico Americano, Campari y Vermouth a partes iguales, sugirió al barman del Café Casoni potenciar el sabor de la mezcla con otra parte igual de ginebra, y desde entonces marcó un antes y un después en el planteamiento de los combinados.
Con este añadido, se consiguió un combinado más atrevido e intenso gracias al toque seco y aromático que aporta la ginebra, fiel reflejo del carácter rudo y varonil de los aristócratas de la época. Uno de sus fanáticos fue el actor y escritor norteamericano Orson Welles, quién lo elogió repetidamente durante su estancia en Italia para el rodaje de Cagliostro en 1947, por el extraordinario balance de sabores del cóctel.
Así el Negroni se ha consolidado como uno de los grandes clásicos, un cóctel que ha perdurado a lo largo de las décadas con un trago distinguido, algo amargo, pero que merece ser saboreado.
En la lista, en cuarto lugar aparece el Manhattan o el cóctel “de la serenidad y madurez”. La primera aparición del Manhattan se podía encontrar en la “Bartender´s Guide” de O.H. Byron de 1884.
Preparar un buen Manhattan no es ninguna ciencia; este cocktail no requiere procedimientos descabellados, ingredientes rarísimos o en cantidades infinitesimales o decoraciones rocambolescas, nada de eso. La persona que encare la elaboración de un Manhattan correctamente debería hacerlo de la misma manera que aquel que va al encuentro de un viejo amigo y se prepara para salir a recorrer la noche.
Llegamos al quinto puesto con el cóctel Dry Martini y en el sexto lugarel Martini, apodado el “Rey de los Cócteles”, el Martini es sin duda la mezcla capaz de expresar el valor de la Ginebra o Vodka, donde la calidad del destilado debe ser la máxima posible.
Un Martini es una declaración personal, y no apto para todos los públicos.
Podemos nombrar a Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Truman Capote, Dorothy Parker, Wiston Churchil, Stalin, entre otros famosos adeptos a este preparado. Incluso Roosevelt se preparó un Dry Martini al terminar la Ley Seca.
Un Martini perfecto debe conservar su translucidez, aspecto intemporal y lo más importante su potencia.
La siempre querida Margarita ocupa el séptimo puesto, y es el cóctel que más tequila vende en el mundo, hoy en día es tan amplia la gama de sabores que te puedes encontrar alguna que se amoldará a tus gustos.
Hay varias historias de quien invento el cóctel Margarita, solo hay algo cierto, detrás de este cóctel hay una mujer, Margarita. La mezcla por excelencia de los mexicanos que se bebe en el mundo entero.
El Whisky Sour se alza con el octavo lugar, es llamado “el Rey de los cócteles con whisky”, esta mezcla mantiene el equilibrio exacto de sus ingredientes, disfrutaremos de un clásico cocktail de whisky sin perder la esencia del alcohol.
La mezcla es originaria del puerto chileno de Iquique. Un mayordomo del velero Sunshine determinó echar anclas en el puerto de Iquique y se estableció en las cercanías del muelle de pasajeros con un bar.
Cierto día Elliot Stubb así se llamaba el barman, estaba haciendo algunos experimentos con la “coctelera”, con whisky y limón de pica y su sabor alcanzó delicias superiores a todas las otras bebidas que acostumbraban a dar a sus clientes.
“Voy a ponerle un poco de dulce”, se dijo. Echó azúcar a una porción de jugo de limón de Pica, un poco de hielo, whisky en proporción y batió algunos segundos. Y probo el mas exquisito drink que había preparado. En adelante dijo Elliot ” éste será mi trago de batalla ” mi trago favorito y se llamará Whisky Sour (sour, el ácido del limón). Luego atravesó fronteras e hizo su aparición en Inglaterra, donde ya estaba cimentada la fama del limón de Pica.
El noveno puesto lo ocupa el Cosmopolitan, es uno de los cocktails más destacados del mundo fashion, una mezcla que luce muy sensual en las manos de una mujer, posee un color rosado y un sabor frutal armonioso, más bien agridulce con un sabor excelente. Se hizo popular en la serie “Sex and the city”.
El décimo puesto lo ocupa el Dark & Stormy, y es el único de esta lista que no tenemos todavía publicado, así que os contamos un poco de su historia y como se hace.
Este es un cocktail muy especial, llamado “el cóctel nacional de las Bermudas”. Se ha hecho muy famoso en algunos países de la Commonwealth como en Bermuda o Australia, también lo es en la costa este de Estados Unidos, principalmente debido a los navegantes que frecuentaban dichas islas.
6 cl, de Ron
9 cl. de Ginger Beer
½ Zumo de Lima
En un alto vaso collins con hielo, combine el ron, la cerveza de jengibre y el zumo de limón. Mezcle bien para combinar. Adorne con una rodaja de lima.
El eclipse total de Sol del 8 de marzo sólo se verá en el sudeste asiático, para quienes ya será el 9 de marzo, informó la agencia espacial norteamericana NASA.
El organismo indicó que el fenómeno durará entre uno y medio a poco más de cuatro minutos en cada lugar, aunque pasarán más de tres horas entre el momento en el que el sitio más occidental comience a ver el eclipse y la ubicación más oriental observe su final.
A medida que la Luna pase entre el Sol y la Tierra bloqueará la cara brillante del Sol mostrando una atmósfera solar tenue y de cierta forma débil, llamada corona solar.
En su página de Internet, la NASA explicó que los eclipses totales de este tipo son posibles debido a que la geometría planetaria es muy precisa.
Es decir, indicó, el Sol es 400 veces más ancho que la Luna, pero también está un poco más de 400 veces más lejos de la Tierra que la Luna durante los eclipses solares totales, por lo que aquellos que observen el fenómeno solo apreciarán el mismo tamaño en el cielo.
Lo anterior significa que la Luna puede bloquear la totalidad de la cara del Sol, mientras que oscurece solo una pequeña porción de la corona interior, detalló la NASA.
Respecto a estos fenómenos, el astrónomo Wilder Chicana Nuncebay comentó que es visible para algunas regiones del planeta porque la sombra de la Luna es mucho más pequeña que la Tierra y cae en cierta porción de la superficie terrestre, donde será visible el fenómeno.
El también responsable del área de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio del Planetario Luis Enrique Erro del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), agregó en entrevista que la ocurrencia de eclipses varía mucho debido a los movimientos de la Tierra, la Luna y el Sol.
“En promedio, en el mismo lugar tendrían que pasar entre 25 y 35 años para darse otro eclipse de sol”, dijo el especialista.
Mientras que los eclipses de Luna el promedio es de 19 años, pero Chicana Nuncebay reiteró que no hay estimación certera, porque varían mucho los movimientos de esos cuerpos celestes.
El astrónomo comentó que ver un eclipse de sol de manera directa es riesgoso, por lo que se debe usar algún instrumento de protección.
“No se debe ver a simple vista, porque los rayos solares emiten mucha radiación de rayos X y ultravioleta que pueden quemar la retina, pues aunque el disco solar no se vea los rayos solares de la corona siguen llegando”, subrayó.
El multimillonario Kenneth Griffin ha hecho la compra de arte más cara de la historia al adquirir las obras Interchange (1955), de Willem de Kooning, por 300 millones de dólares y Number 17A (1948), de Jackson Pollock por 200 millones, sumando la cantidad de 500 millones de dólares, registrada como la adquisición privada más costosa.
La compra realizada por Griffin ha igualado el récord de 300 millones de dólares que pagaron las autoridades de los museos de Qatar en febrero de 2015 por Nafea faa ipoipo, de Paul Gauguin, considerada como la compra de arte más cara de la historia, seguida por Los jugadores de cartas de Paul Cézanne, por 250 millónes de dólares.
La fortuna del acaudalado, considerado como el gestor de fondos mejor pagado de Wall Street, asciende a 7 mil 400 millones de dólares. Todo parece indicar que el magnate es fanático del arte, pues en diciembre del 2015 donó 40 millones al Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York y en febrero del mismo año pagó 46 millones por una pintura del alemán Gerard Richter.
Las dos obras de expresionismo abstracto provenientes de la fundación David Geffen, fueron donadas al Instituto de Arte de Chicago, donde el multimillonario es miembro del consejo desde 2004, y actualmente permanecen exhibidas en la misma sala.
El precandidato republicano Jeb Bush anunció este sábado que se retiraba de la contienda electoral.
Bush, quien ya venía rezagado en las etapas previas de este proceso, quedó por debajo de los tres primeros en las primarias de Carolina del Sur.
Donald Trump ganó estas primarias, dejando el segundo puesto disputado por Marco Rubio y Ted Cruz.
He did it again. Real estate developer Donald Trump just won the South Carolina’s primary with 34% of votes, according to preliminary returns, which should leave him with the overwhelming majority of its delegates. The validation of the real estate tycoon/reality-TV star raises the prospect that Trump, having easily won in New Hampshire, could dominate the 12 mostly southern and midwestern states that vote on Super Tuesday (Mar. 1) and take a commanding lead in the Republican primary
A strongly Republican state, South Carolina has roughly the population of Iowa and New Hampshire combined. Its primary voters are composed of diverse swathes of conservatives, including heavily Christian pockets in the northwest, moderates around the wealthier coastal hubs, and a healthy sprinkling of independents throughout.
Trump’s win means Republican voters—even deeply Christian ones—care less about values or policies than having a crusader for their grievances.
Consider Trump’s run-ins with the Pope and Apple in the week running up to the election. Or voters’ reaction to his immigration policy, which was consistently what South Carolinian supporters told Quartz that they like most about Trump.
“I love what he stands for, that he’s not owned by the establishment, that he wants to make America great again…and that he has a plan for doing this, with immigration,” said Sara Dick, a nursing student and Army veteran, during a Trump rally in Sumter, SC, on Wednesday (Feb. 17). She voted for Barack Obama in 2008.
“Someone who’s willing to fight for Americans—that means a lot to me,” Dick added. “That he wants to protect my child’s right to be here.”
All about “winning”
This is exactly what Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio miss as they nitpick each other’s immigration policies. Most voters don’t see the Trump’s immigration rhetoric—e.g. banning Muslims and kicking out 11 million undocumented immigrants—as policy proposals so much as symbols of his commitment to helping Americans “win.”
Throughout the last few weeks, the state’s biggest GOP luminaries—notably, governor Nikki Haley and senator Tim Scott—have rallied around Rubio. The party’s advocates and its anointed candidates have spent the last few weeks railing against Trump’s defiance of the GOP orthodoxy—for instance, his position on eminent domain, or the qualified support for Planned Parenthood he voiced in the most recent debate—and questioning his character (one Bush radio spot was a medley of Trump’s bleeped-out curses).
But straight talk, for Trump supporters, trumps consistency. Nancy Pugh, a staunchly religious retiree who also attended Trump’s Sumter event, sees his willingness to change as a sign that he can be trusted.
“At one time, he might have been a part of that problem. When I see attack adds against him for things he did back in 1999, I do not hold him to those things,” she says. “Perhaps, now he has seen the devastation that those things caused. Everyone can change their opinion on issues when they are given good reasons why they were wrong.”
Hillary Clinton, who took the Democratic caucus vote in Nevada, the gambling capital of the country, owes at least two precincts to luck. In Carson City and Pahrump the races were tied and had to be decided by chance, which in Nevada’s case appropriately involves a deck of cards.
The Wall Street Journal reported that Clinton got six delegates in Carson City because her supporter drew the higher card, and three in Pahrump, where her representative drew an ace. It was a small step toward her victory in the state, but every little bit helps.
US presidential nominees are determined by primaries, where voters simply cast their ballots, and by complicated caucuses that require citizens to convene and discuss their choices before deciding who to support. In the Iowa Democratic caucus earlier this month, several precincts were deadlocked and had to decide on a candidate by flipping a coin. In casino-happy Nevada, ties are broken by drawing from a deck of cards.
Even without help from lucky cards, Clinton won caucuses held at many of the state’s casinos, including Ceasars Palace, which she visited three times in three days. With tens of thousands of union members, casino workers are a powerful voting force in Nevada.
Although casteism is not very deep-rooted and also varies regionally, its prevalence among Muslims is a matter of concern. Caste among Muslims is less common in South India. Growing up in a South Indian Muslim culture, I had no encounter with casteism among Muslims in my day to day life. The only time caste was mentioned was during matchmaking for weddings. Enquiries for the clan/biradari of the bride or groom were made for compatibility. However, emphasis was more on the financial and educational compatibility. With passing time, the mention of caste has been reduced to a mere formality.
But in North India, the situation seems to be different. Casteism is very common in certain regions, especially in Bihar and West Bengal. In Bihar, the Sheikhs, Pathans and Sayeds have been reported to look down upon other Muslims likes Ansaris and Quraishis. In 2003, there was a news item which described how there were separate graveyards based on caste. While this appears shocking, many Muslims in Bihar dismiss the news as an exaggeration of the situation. West Bengal has a Muslim population of around 27%. In the state, Muslims are broadly divided into upper-castes or Jajmans and the lower-castes or Kamins. Social interactions between the two strata are minimal, especially in rural areas. On the positive side, despite casteism, people from different clans pray together in the local mosque without any discrimination. Both the Jajmans and the Kamins have free and equal access to the mosque.
Historically casteism was present from the pre-Mughal era. Muslims were divided into two main groups: the Ashrafs (nobles) and the Ajlafs. While the Ashrafs mostly consisted of foreign Muslims who migrated to India; the Ajlafs were natives who converted to Islam. The Ashrafs include Sayyads, Sheiks, Mughals and Pathans. The Sayyads were considered as the descendants of the Prophet, hence highly respected and were usually Islamic scholars and teachers.
Ironically, in his last sermon, which is quoted in Sahih al-Bukhari(narrated by Abu Huraira), the Prophet himself had said: “O, people! Indeed your Lord is one, there is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab, nor of a white over black.”
Following the Prophet, we can say with some certainty that whoever practices caste discrimination among Muslims is deviating from the teachings of the Prophet. Many Indian Muslims believe that caste is more of a social phenomenon. They think that people confuse clan with caste. However, the Sachar Committee report says that Muslims are divided into four major groups:
- Ashrafs, who trace their origins to foreign lands
- Upper caste Hindus, who converted into Islam
- Middle caste converts with a decent occupation
- Converts from the erstwhile untouchable castes like the bhangi, chamar , mehtar and halalkhor
An analysis of this caste categorization shows that it is based mostly on occupation than on birth.
Although surnames like Sayed, Khan and Sheikh are used by Muslims, they don’t indicate hierarchy. Caste system in Islam is not as rigid as in other faiths. The caste markers are commonly employed for identifying biradaris or clans. For example, if one is a Sheikh, it is assumed that the ancestors were of foreign origin and were mostly traders. Similarly, Pathans are assumed to be of Afghan origin and were mostly warriors. Qureshis were native converts whose ancestors were associated with the animal trade. Initially marriages within the biradari were encouraged but with the passage of time, inter-biradari marriages have become common. People started looking out for social and economic compatibility more than compatibility of clan.
After the Mandal Commission report, the government decided to give reservation to the Dalits and the OBCs. Many lower caste Muslims such as Qureshis, Ansaris, Dhobi Muslims, Idris, Halal Khor, Julahas, Gujars, Telis are accorded the OBC status and, hence, are eligible for reservation. The benefit of reservation has made Muslims declare their caste openly. Since most in these categories are still economically backward, many Indian Muslims stick to caste markers to avail the benefits of reservation.
Dr. Kouser Fathima is a Bangalore-based dentist who writes on issues concerning women, especially Muslim women. Email: email@example.com. Twitter: @drkf_18
Savaging George W. Bush for September 11 and battling Pope Francis didn’t seem to hurt – and likely helped – Donald Trump win decisively in the South Carolina GOP primary this afternoon.
TV news pundits began to foam over as they envisioned a world in which Trump “runs the table” – as Donald himself forecast – after winning South Carolina.
“Does this represent the defeat of skepticism?” wondered one incredulous CNN navel lint gazer.
With 98% of the votes in, Trump was South Carolina’s GOP primary winner with 32.5% of the vote. Marco Rubio followed with 22.5% to Ted Cruz’s 22.3%. Jeb Bush (& family) followed at 7.9%, closely followed by John Kasich’s 7.6% and Ben Carson’s 7.2%.
TV commentators struggled to comprehend Trump having handily taken a state so heavily evangelical and, traditionally, pro-Bush.
“When Donald Trump win’s it’s almost like he’s amazed by it,” another gazer insisted, maybe thinking of his tweet earlier in the afternoon:
Trump seemed anything but surprised as he took the stage for his victory lap. After thanking his family – though not each one of them individually, as he had done in New Hampshire – Trump thanked the state’s Lt. Gov. Henry McMaster “who backed us very early in the process.”
“You know Henry, right? I will take him over the governor any time – because we won,” Trump roared – Gov. Nikki Haley having endorsed Rubio.
Trump also took some whacks at TV news’ talking heads for their coverage of his primary win. “I was watching upstairs, and some of the pundits – overall fair, some not too much – a number of pundits said, ‘If a number of them dropped out and you add those together it’s going to equal Trump.’ These geniuses! They don’t understand, as these people drop out, I’m going to get lots of those votes. You don’t just add them together. We’re going to do very well.”
He congratulated Rubio and Cruz. “There is nothing easy about running for president. It‘s tough, it’s nasty, it’s mean, it’s beautiful! When you win it’s beautiful.”
Before today’s primary, pundits forecast bottom poll-ers would get out of the race.
After Trump’s win was declared, Jeb announced the Bush dynasty was throwing in the towel.
“Tonight I am suspending my campaign. I congratulate my competitors that are remaining on the island,” Bush said, taking a jab at Trump with that reality-TV reference — wrong show, Jeb. “In this campaign I have stood my ground, refusing to bend to the political winds.”
“Despite what you may have heard, ideas matter, policy matters,” Bush continued, adding, “I truly hope that these ideas that we’ve laid out will serve as a blueprint for a generation of conservative leaders so we can take back our country.”
Trump’s win was declared very quickly after TV news turned its attention to South Carolina after having spent the morning focused on the Democratic caucuses in Nevada, where Hillary Clinton pulled off a win against Bernie Sanders.
With about 84% of votes were reported, Clinton had 52.4% of the votes to Bernie Sanders’ 47.5%. That would give her 22 delegates to his 15. “Five weeks ago we were 25 points behind in the polls,” Sanders noted of the Nevada results in his scrappy “concession” speech.
Clinton, meanwhile, said “I” far less frequently and “we” more often in her victory lap, as TV news pundits noted, and didn’t shout into the microphone so much, having apparently taken to heart their criticism of her earlier speeches in Iowa and New Hampshire.
“What is happening is that, as people hear our message – and it’s a tough message, because it speaks to the truth of American society today that a lot of people don’t want to address – is we have a corrupt campaign finance system that is undermining American democracy,” Sanders said, moments after having “congratulated” Clinton’s campaign in his this-ain’t- over-yet address to his staff and volunteers. “We will not allow billionaires and their Super PACs continue to buy elections in the United States of America,” Sanders said like he meant it to sting.
Sanders insisted (TV news navel-lint gazers seemed more dubious) “we’ve got an excellent chance to win many” Super Tuesday states.
“But I also know that, on Super Tuesday…we are going to be taking on a very powerful and well-funded Super PAC, and a Super PAC that receives significant amounts of money from Wall Street and wealthy special interests,” he said of the Clinton campaign. That knocked about 20% of the effectiveness, TV-wise, off of Clinton’s victory-lap line to viewers that of the more than 750K people who have gone to HillaryClinton.com and “contributed what you could, the majority of you have given less than $100.”
Clinton also spent a good-ish portion of her speech addressing students, who have flocked to Sanders, pronouncing their generation “the most tolerant and well-connected our country has ever seen” and that “I know what you’re up against…It’s not just enough to make college more affordable, you need help to deal with the [student loan] debt you already have.”
Fox News Channel said the win breathes “new life into her campaign just a week-and-a-half after she lost to Sanders by double-digits in New Hampshire,” and that while her win is a narrow one, Clinton hopes it undercuts Sanders’ momentum.
CNN noted Clinton faced a surprisingly brisk challenge from Sanders, and that a win by Sanders, after trouncing her in New Hampshire primary, would have dealt Clinton a major blow.
MSNBC noted Clinton eked out her tight win in Nevada by relying on key groups that supported her in prior contests – particularly women and older voters – and lost the Hispanic vote to Sanders, but won the overall nonwhite vote because of strong support from black voters.
Recently, Habib Ali al-Jifri, one of the most famous traditional Islamic clerics in the Arab world, came to Kerala to address a gathering of a thousand young Muslims. He told the audience that it’s the responsibility of traditional scholars to teach the ideas of peace inherent in Islam and to propagate the vision of interreligious harmony that Islam taught throughout its history. He asked the Muslim youth to read the famous Arabic book, Egyptian cleric Usama Alazhari’s Alhaqqulmubeen Firraddi ala Man Tala’aba Biddheen, which accounts for the real meaning of the verses on Jihad by the traditionally held pluralist interpretation (the same text has recently been translated into Malayalam by a Keralite Sunni scholar named, AP Abdulhakeem Azhari and published by the Read Press which is under the Sunni scholars’ organisation in Kerala). The religious instructions on how to get rid of the extremist voices that have crept into Islam in the course of time is rather effective even to counter the influence of the so-called Islamic State (IS) terrorists. And if followed closely, Aljifri claimed, Alazhari’s tenets could act effectively to thwart the threats of such extremist outfits, because a significant portion of Muslims is deeply religious.
For the harmonious tradition of religions, we need to carefully observe the way Muslims live and have lived in the past in many parts of the world, including Indonesia, where a third of the total Muslim population lives. They coexisted and lived with others harmoniously. This tradition of interreligious harmony and living with diversity were inherited in South Asia, where the Sufi saints spread the message of Islam. The famous seven Sufi saints were behind the propagation of Islam in Indonesia. In India, many Sufi networks such as that of Ajmer Qwaja are considered responsible for the past growth of Islam. These Sufis played a significant role in perpetuating this plural culture of Islam in these lands. And Saladin Ayubi, the famous Sufi military leader, allowed around 60,000 crusaders to return from the captivity, instead of being avenged for the deaths of thousands of Muslims. This tradition was inherited from the prophet of Islam. When he conquered the land of infidels who were constantly troubling him, he proclaimed, “You are today free, so you are permitted to go.”
Sheikh Zainudheen Makhdoom, one of most famous Sufi saints in Kerala, who lived in the 16th century AD, stood with the Hindu King against the exploitative rule of Portuguese colonialism. The important thing we could learn in this context is that it was beyond the Islamic Fiqhi (jurisprudential) instructions, because the Fiqh never made a provision of being with an infidel to fight against an army. But, this contextualised activism of this Sufi saint was copied from the life-experience of Prophet Muhammad himself. The Prophet had once said that even if the infidels had called him to settle a socially beneficial agreement, he would go for it. And this Sufi saint and other scholars in Kerala prayed for the Hindu King from their mosques. This activity can’t also directly be supported by the Islamic jurisprudence but it shows how the Islamic texts could be interpreted in a contextualized way in order to show their beautiful and pluralist tradition. Also, Muslims prayed for the King because he was a just King, who permitted everyone to practice their own religions in his multicultural local context.
The avoidable orthodoxy and extremist thoughts of some early Muslims unfortunately made them unaware of this beautiful tradition. And they misinterpreted the Islamic textual instructions without contextualizing the texts and considering their traditional explanations. This tradition in Islam never permitted any insurgent rebellion (or Hathmiyyathussidam, an imperative war against these infidels) against the ruler. For example, Shaikh Saeed Ramadan Albuthi, a famous traditional Muslim scholar, was killed by the belligerent rebels in Syria. The extremists mis-conceptualised the ‘Hakimiyyath (a term used by the traditional scholars to denote the misconception of extremist ideologues that every Muslim who can’t administer or legislate according to the Sharia laws is infidel), which perpetuates the bigger threat today by the extremist outfit of Islamic State. A particular quranic verse is taken out of context by the extremists. The verse states, “Those who are not judging as per the revelation of Allah are infidels.” This verse is lifted by the extremists to disapprove and render illegitimate even the political authority of Muslims in the Arab world by proclaiming them as infidels. However, the traditional interpretations of this verse imply that one could be called an infidel only when one judges by denying the validity of revelations. And this is not the only case but there are several other examples. According to the Islamic jurisprudence, if a person commits a bigger evil with denying its invalidity in Islam, he would become an infidel.
In the dark light of this ‘Hakimiyyath’, Syed Qutb and Muhammed Qutb worked out a case for the fundamentalist political Islamism with the instruments of Shirkuthavheed, Shirkulhakimiyyath (plurality in legislation) and other argumentative religious explanations. Following these misled discussions, they separated every geographical area into Dar-ul-Harb (a country where the Jihad is compulsory) and Dar-ul-Islam (these two concepts mostly related with the practical life of a Muslim) and made it impossible to live with believers in other religions. They declared Muslim rulers infidels and stamped ‘Jahiliyya’ upon the ruled. Moreover, they proclaimed the status of Dar-ul-Harb upon their Arab lands and called for a holy war to create an Islamic State, as evident in Swalih Siriyya’s book, Risalathu Eeman, which was inspired by the so-called grim Jihadi prospects of Syed Qutb. From this infamous tradition that internalised inner conflicts and Takfeerul-muslimeen (tendency to make the majority Muslims infidels), which had first appeared during the first century Hijri with the name of ‘Khawarijs’, about fifteen Islamist organisations, ranging from the Muslim Brotherhood and Al-Qaeda to the deadliest and present extremist outfit of Islamic State, came into prominence.
Muhammad Ashraf Thachara Padikkal is currently a research intern at Madeenathunnor, Calicut, Kerala. He is an interviewer, writer and independent research fellow, specializing in the areas of Sufism, Islamic studies and cultural anthropology. He is also interested in tradition, philology and subaltern literature.